Paraw Regatta, Iloilo, Philippines

Paraw Regatta, Iloilo, Philippines

Sailing into Our Past and Future: Maritime Southeast Asian and Pacific Canoes and Our Integral Relationship with the Ocean

Grades 9-10
Developed by Elena Clariza, University of Hawaii
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Overview

“Sailing into our Past and Future” embraces a cultural-based science and social science curriculum. Its aim is to teach students to think critically and reflect on their personal histories and their place while learning about the canoes of Maritime Southeast Asia (Philippines and Indonesia) and the Pacific.  The first half of the unit takes students into the maritime world of the Austronesian people.  The second half engages students in challenging and authentic learning experiences.  Through field observations and research, students form a deeper understanding and appreciation of their environment.  Students tackle a complex real world problem by designing a prototype of a canoe. The final portion of the unit challenges students to reflect and think critically about culture, migration, and colonization.

Learning Objectives

Enduring Understandings

  • Learning about our history and the role of canoes in different Maritime Southeast Asian-Pacific cultures increases our understanding of our selves and our integral relationship with the ocean.
  • Learning about our history is empowering as it guides us towards a sustainable future.

Essential Questions

1.  What is the role of canoes in different Maritime Southeast Asian-Pacific cultures?

2. What does it reveal about our relationship to the ocean?

Standard Benchmarks and Values

Common Core

Language Arts

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas:

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.11-12.7

Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve a problem.

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity:                                                

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.11-12.10

By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 11-CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Comprehension and Collaboration:                                                               

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.9-10.1
Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9-10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.   

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.9-10.1.a                                                                                

Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.  

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.9-10.1.b                                                                                

Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision-making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views), clear goals and deadlines, and individual roles as needed. 

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas:                                                                    

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.9-10.4                                                                                

Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.9-10.5
Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.

Next Generation Science Standards

HS-ETS1 Engineering Design

HS-ETS1-2 Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering.

HS-ETS1-3 Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and trade-offs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts.

HS-ETS1-4 Use a computer simulation to model the impact of proposed solutions to a complex real-world problem with numerous criteria and constraints on interactions within and between systems relevant

Critical Skills and Concepts

Students will develop critical thinking skills, build self-confidence, gain the ability to design and build a prototype of a canoe, and learn communication skills through sharing histories.

Unit Map

Learning Plan

Building the Background: 

1. The story of the Austronesian Migration:  The students will watch “Austronesia Migration” by Jobert Monteras from the Ayala Museum in the Philippines  and “The Austronesian Heritage”

The incredible Sama (Badjao/u).  Students will watch an episode of BBC’s Human Planet about the nomadic Sama people and their extraordinary human adaptation in order to survive in the middle of the ocean.

Discuss the role of canoes in the lives of the Austronesian people and their relationship to the ocean.

2.  Cultural Energizer – Students study the world map or globe.  Ask them to locate their school on a world map or globe. Students locate their parents’, grandparents’ or ancestors’ homeland on a map. Ask students how they arrived at their current place.  Were they born in Hawai’i or elsewhere?  Did they sail on a boat or flew on a plane? Students discuss how people might have migrated across the continents 5,000 years ago.  Community Collaboration – Students interview an elder from their community about the history of their place.  Who used to live in their community? How long have they lived in their community?

3. Students read the following books and articles:

a.“The Ingenious Filipino Boat” by FR. Gabriel S. Casal, Eusebio Z. Dizon, Wilfredo P. Ronquillio and Cecilio G. Salcedo in Kasaysayan Vol. 2: The Earliest Filipinos.

b.“Traditional Island Southeast Asian Watercraft in Philippine Archaeological Sites” by Ligaya S.P. Lacsina from The MUA Collection.

c. Bugis Navigation by Gene Ammarell (1999).  Hamilton Library, University of Hawaii, [Asia DS632.B85A45 1999].

d. Sailing Craft of Indonesia by Adrian Horridge (1986).  Hamilton Library, University of Hawaii, [Asia VM351.H674 1986].

e. Seafaring in the Contemporary Pacific Islands: Studies in Continuity and Change edited by Richard Feinberg (1995). Hamilton Library, University of Hawaii, [GN662.S43 1995].

f. “Shipshape Societies: Boat Symbolism and Political Systems in Insular Southeast Asia” by Pierre-Yves Manguin in Southeast Asia in the 9th and 14th Centuries edited by David G. Marr and A.C. Milner. (1986). Singapore : Institute of Southeast Asian Studies ; Canberra, Australia : Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. Hamilton Library, University of Hawaii, Hamilton Library, [Asia DS 526.3 .S68 1986].

g. Small Boat Design: Proceedings of the ICLARM Conference on Small Boat Design, Noumea, New Caledonia, October 27-28, 1975 ed. by Johanna M. Reinhart. Manila, Philippines: International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management.

h. Canoes of Oceania by Alfred C. Haddon and James Hornell, 2 vols (1936 and 1975).  Hamilton Library, University of Hawaii, Hamilton Library, University of Hawaii, [VM353.H33 1975].

c.“Trading Ships of the South China Sea: Shipbuilding Techniques and their Role in the History of the Development of Asian Trade Networks” by Pierre-Yves Manguin in Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient vol. 36, no. 3 (1993): 253-280.

d.Wangka: Austronesian Canoe Origins by Edwin B. Doran (1981).  Hamilton Library, University of Hawaii, [GN635.I75 D67].

e.“In Search of the Ancient Polynesian Voyaging Canoe” (1998) by Herb Kawainue Kane.

f.“Wa, Vinta, and Trimaran” by Edwin Doran, Jr. in The Journal of the Polynesian Society vol. 81 no. 2 (1972): 144-159.

g. The Prahu: Traditional Sailing Boat of Indonesia  by Adrian Horridge, (1985).  Hamilton Library, University of Hawaii, [Asia VM371.H67].

For more resources on Southeast Asian and Pacific navigation and boats, please visit the following website:

University of Hawaii, Philippines Subject Guide

4. The students will do a KWL chart on canoes of Southeast Asia and the Pacific.

What do they know, what do you want to know, and what did you learn? Students activate their prior knowledge and pursue questions of interest.

5. Students conduct research on canoes and upload their findings on a school supported blog to be shared with other students. Students answer the following questions: What are the similarities and differences between the canoes of Southeast Asia and the Pacific?  How would you describe the Austronesian’s relationship to the Ocean.

Deepening the Understanding:

6.  Environmental Awareness.  This activity will teach students to become aware of their environment.  Have them read the following paragraph:

“All sailors get started by developing a sensitivity to the forces of wind and water and how they change.  This “environmental awareness” calls for continuous observation of wind, weather, waves, current and distance from shore.  By learning to sense these forces and anticipate changes in your surroundings, you will become a self-reliant sailor who can sail confidently in all kinds of conditions.  The old racing sailor’s axiom, “keep your head out of the boat!” is good advice for all sailors.” (Polynesian Voyaging & Seamanship)

Just like a sailor, we need to learn how to become sensitive to our environment.  We live in the earth’s biosphere, the zone where all living things exist.  It is our life – support and our survival depends on every interconnected organism living in it.  Its health depends on how we care for our environment.  It begins with getting to know our home intimately.

Students discuss and define the terms “ecosystem”, “biodiversity”, “biosphere” and “environment.”  Visit Kadagatan: A Curriculum on Filipino Culture and Marine Ecology.

As homework, students will choose a location (i.e. park, garden, stream, beach) where it is safe to observe nature.  Community Collaboration – Seek help from a local librarian, forest ranger or local historian in learning about the history of this place.

Once the students know its history, they will find a spot to observe nature.  Make sure to be quiet to not disturb the animals or small critters.  The students will sit still for at least an hour in one location and take detailed notes of their surroundings (i.e. wind direction, weather, vegetation, animals, insects, cloud cover, etc.).  They will take pictures, video recordings, and write their observations in their “nature journal.”

Students can also turn this into a long-term project by keeping a nature journal for a longer period of time (i.e. one month, one semester).  Keep track of the changes that happen through time.  If applicable, students can also tie this to navigation by determining the best time to sail based on their data.  They will present their findings to the class or in an online blog.

7. Story of hard work, hope and determination. Florentino Das’ 5,000 solo voyage across the Pacific.

There are over 90 million Filipinos in the Philippines. They live in an archipelago of 7,107 islands, 175 languages, and over 300 dialects.  Since the early 1900s especially after the Philippine-American War, millions were forced to leave to find work overseas, because of conflict, natural calamities and high unemployment rates.  Millions more have left for good, now calling countries such as the United States “home away from home.”

The distance away from their homeland only makes these Filipinos yearn more for it.  The call of the old country is always hard to resist.  They always come back whenever they can.  One man even built his own boat and risked his life to sail 5,000 miles across the Pacific Ocean.  His name was Florentino Das.

In 1955, Das, a resident of Waianae Coast on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, bravely crossed the Pacific Ocean by himself in his 24-foot homemade wooden sailboat without the aid of modern navigational and communication devices.  According to Hawaii Governor Neil Abercrombie, “Florentino Das’ courage and vision are worthy of him being included in the pantheon of Hawaii heroes.  Dr. Raymund Liongson, professor at the Leeward Community College, University of Hawaii, said, “Florentino Das’ legacy is not only bequeathing a nation and a people honor and pride; it is reminding the human race of the infinite power of work, sacrifice and passion for a dream.”

Students will read Bold Dream, Uncommon Valor, The Florentino Das Story by Serafin P. Colmenares, Jr. Cecilia D. Noble and Patricia E. Halagao.  They will discuss the terms “migration”, “Diaspora,” and the idea of “home.” Students answer the following question:

Every person has a capacity to make a positive difference in the world like Florentino Das. What will you do to make the world a better place?

8. Cultural Revival.  Students read “Processes of Decolonization” by Poka Laenui. 

Students watch Worldwide Voyage 2012 – 2017, and the Voyage of the Balangay

Many islands in Southeast Asia and the Pacific were colonized by countries such as Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands, France, Japan, and the United States beginning in the late 16th Century.  Colonization occurs when one country invades another and takes away their sovereignty or independence.  Virgilio Enriquez suggests the six steps of colonization.

Virgilio Enriquez (cited in Laenui 2000) breaks down the process of colonization into six steps: (1) ‘denial/ withdrawal’: the indigenous people are denied the existence of their culture and withdraws from identifying with their culture; (2) ‘destruction/eradication’: the physical elements of the indigenous culture are eradicated; (3) ‘deni-gration/ belittlement/insult’: the cultural practice of the traditional culture are treated as criminal; (4) ‘surface accommodation/ tokenism’: surviving cultural elements are folkloricized; (5) ‘transformation’: indigenous cultural practice is infused into the dominate culture; and (6) ‘exploitation’: indigenous culture is sought for commercial, artistic, and political gain. (Halagao, 2010)

The aftermath of colonization was destructive to the Austronesian people.  Many continue to suffer from colonial mentality, the belief that the colonized and/or formerly colonized people are psychologically and intellectually inferior to their colonizers.

There is a strong decolonization movement among the indigenous people. This includes spearheading daring projects to reclaim their cultural heritage.  In 1975, the Hawaiians through the Polynesian Voyaging Society built Hōkūle‘a, a replica of an ancient Polynesian voyaging canoe. Hōkūle‘a has sailed around the world several times.

In 2009, the Filipinos built a replica of a balangay, the ancient canoe that brought their ancestors to the Philippines.  They sailed the Balangay around Southeast Asia tracing the migration path of their ancestors.

Students reflect on their own histories and the history of their place.  Community Collaboration – Students will conduct research on their place by talking to community elders, family members, local historians and by visiting the local library.  If possible, invite a community member who can speak about your place’s history.  Students will learn who the indigenous people are in their community.  Encourage them to have an honest discussion about colonization and its impact on indigenous peoples.  Provide a safe space where students can openly share their feelings and thoughts about colonization.

Applying the Learning:

9. Engineering and technology.  Students conduct an inventory of the bodies of water found in their hometown.  Is there an ocean nearby?  River? Lake? Streams?  Students research canoe designs based on the topography of their place.  Using Computer-Aided Design (CAD) or AutoCAD, software used extensively in designing automobiles and ships, students will develop a blueprint for a prototype of a canoe adapted to sail in their ocean, lake or river.  Will your boat float or sink?  Visit this website to learn about buoyancy.

Culminating Project:

The class will build a prototype of a canoe.  Divide the class into four task groups according to the students’ interests.

Task Groups:

1. Research

2. Canoe building

3. Art

4. Documentation/Website

The students will learn collaborations skills and decision making in a democratic manner.    With the essential questions in mind, the class will design and build a prototype of a traditional canoe found in their community.  Seek advice from local experts.  If your community does not have a seafaring tradition, design a prototype based on the unit’s readings.  Make sure that this canoe is adapted to the topography of your place.

The groups will be in constant consultation with each other while designing and building their prototype. Students will test their boats for buoyancy.  The documentation team will keep detailed record of the teams’ work.  The students will present the final product at their school’s Science Fair, Science Conference, in front of parents, school administrators, student body and at community centers.  A video detailing the team’s work can be uploaded online in a school supported website.  Be sure to include the history and stories associated with your canoe.

A 12 ft prototype of an indigenous Filipino boat is in the works at a local high school in Hawaii through the F.O.B. Project.  To learn more visit fobproject.wordpress.com

Assessments

Authentic Performance Task

  • Groups will work collaboratively in designing and building a prototype of an indigenous canoe.
  • Students will produce a video showing the groups’ collaborative process in concept creation, design and building of the canoe.
  • Students will present final product to their school and the wider community.

Authentic Audience

  • Students will present their project to their classmates and teachers.
  • Students will make their video available to the community via online using an approved school website.

Other Evidence

  • Video, Student Presentations, Canoe

Rubrics

Standard Benchmarks Skills Concepts Assessment Not yet within expectations1 Pt Meets expectations2 Pts Exceeds expectations3 Pts
HS-ETS1-2 Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering. Problem solving, synthesize complex information and ideas from varying sources, design process Flotation and buoyancy, drafting, blue-printing, navigation and wayfinding Blueprint outlining the design of the prototype of the indigenous canoe explaining the detailed specifications of the vessel. The canoe floats. Blueprint is not complete and information presented is inaccurate. The canoe does not float. The blueprint shows the complexity of the design, the total cost, the supplies used, and the level of skill vital to construct the prototype. The canoe floats. The blueprint shows the complexity of the design, the total cost, the supplies used, and the level of skill vital to construct the prototype. It includes social, cultural and environmental impacts. The canoe floats.
HS-ETS1-4 Use a computer simulation to model the impact of proposed solutions to a complex real-world problem with numerous criteria and constraints on interactions within and between systems relevant Problem solving, Computer- Aided Design (CAD), autoCAD, creativity, design process, concept creation Flotation and buoyancy, drafting, blue-printing, navigation and wayfinding. Model outlining the design of the prototype of the canoe explaining the detailed specifications of the project. Model is not complete and information presented is inaccurate. The model shows the complexity of the design, the total cost, the supplies used, and the level of skill vital to construct the prototype. The model shows the complexity of the design, the total cost, the supplies used, and the level of skill vital to construct the prototype. It includes social, cultural and environmental impacts.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY
.RH.11-12.7
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve a problem.
Ability to synthesize complex information and ideas from varying sources, provide sound analysis and assessment of a problem, design process Flotation and buoyancy, culture, sustainability, environment, culture, community Research paper assessed based on content, organization, style and fluency. The research paper is disorganized, lacks consistency and did not address the problem. The research paper is clear and focused. Misspellings and grammatical errors do not take away from the meaning of the paper The research paper is clear and focused with no misspellings and grammatical errors.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy
.SL.9-10.1.b

Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision-making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views), clear goals and deadlines, and individual roles as needed.
Collaboration, problem solving,Ability to synthesize complex information and ideas from varying sources as a team, provide sound analysis and assessment of a problem, design process Lokahi (Unity), Bayanihan (working together as one community), listen Students are assess based on group communication, decision making and problem solving. Students do not work as a team. They cannot communicate with each other. One or a few students dominate the discussions and decisions. Students work as a team. They make sure that they have the information they need. They are honest and assertive in voicing out their opinion. They are able to make a decision quickly and equitably. Students work as a team. They make sure that they have the information they need. They are honest and assertive in voicing out their opinion. They are able to make a decision quickly and equitably. Students are able to recognize problems, assess it and dig deep to understand the causes, provide solution and implement their ideas.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy
.SL.9-10.5
Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.
Presentation skills, ability to synthesize complex information and ideas from varying sources as a team, provide sound analysis and assessment of a problem, design process Flotation and buoyancy, culture, sustainability, environment, culture, community, lokahi (Unity), Bayanihan (working together as one community) The canoe is displayed at the school in an appropriate location. Final presenation includes the group video explaining the procedure and findings of the project. The canoe and final presentation and video do not meet the requirements of the project. The canoe and final video are complete and meets all requirements of the project. The final presentation includes a well thought out video with clear images and easy to follow and logical reasoning and explanations. The canoe and video are thorough and complete and meets all the requirements of the project. The presentation is creative, dynamic and engaging.
Materials

1. “Austronesia Migration” by Jobert Monteras

http://vimeo.com/17188540 

2. “The Austronesian Heritage”

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oShirKsUDAk.

3. Sama (Badjao/u) by BBC Human Planet https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FaGHjSaCW6A&feature=youtu.be

4.“The Ingenious Filipino Boat” by FR. Gabriel S. Casal, Eusebio Z. Dizon, Wilfredo P. Ronquillio and Cecilio G. Salcedo in Kasaysayan Vol. 2: The Earliest Filipinos.

http://aboutphilippines.ph/filer/The-Ingenious-Filipino-Boat.pdf

5.“Traditional Island Southeast Asian Watercraft in Philippine Archaeological Sites” by Ligaya S.P. Lacsina from The MUA Collection.http://aboutphilippines.ph/filer/The-Ingenious-Filipino-Boat.pdf

6. Bugis Navigation by Gene Ammarell (1999).  Hamilton Library, University of Hawaii, [Asia DS632.B85A45 1999].

7.Sailing Craft of Indonesia by Adrian Horridge (1986).  Hamilton Library, University of Hawaii, [Asia VM351.H674 1986].

8.Seafaring in the Contemporary Pacific Islands: Studies in Continuity and Change edited by Richard Feinberg (1995). Hamilton Library, University of Hawaii, [GN662.S43 1995].

9. “Shipshape Societies: Boat Symbolism and Political Systems in Insular Southeast Asia” by Pierre-Yves Manguin in Southeast Asia in the 9th and 14th Centuries edited by David G. Marr and A.C. Milner. (1986). Singapore : Institute of Southeast Asian Studies ; Canberra, Australia : Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. Hamilton Library, University of Hawaii, Hamilton Library, [Asia DS 526.3 .S68 1986].

10. Small Boat Design: Proceedings of the ICLARM Conference on Small Boat Design, Noumea, New Caledonia, October 27-28, 1975 ed. by Johanna M. Reinhart. Manila, Philippines: International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management.

11.Canoes of Oceania by Alfred C. Haddon and James Hornell, 2 vols (1936 and 1975).  Hamilton Library, University of Hawaii, Hamilton Library, University of Hawaii, [VM353.H33 1975].

12. “Trading Ships of the South China Sea: Shipbuilding Techniques and their Role in the History of the Development of Asian Trade Networks” by Pierre-Yves Manguin in Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient vol. 36, no. 3 (1993): 253-280. (Available online)

13. Wangka: Austronesian Canoe Origins by Edwin B. Doran (1981).  Hamilton Library, University of Hawaii, [GN635.I75 D67].

14. “In Search of the Ancient Polynesian Voyaging Canoe (1998) by Herb Kawainue Kane. http://pvs.kcc.hawaii.edu/ike/kalai_waa/kane_search_voyaging_canoe.html

15. “Wa, Vinta, and Trimaran” by Edwin Doran, Jr. in The Journal of the Polynesian Society vol. 81 no. 2 (1972): 144-159. http://www.jps.auckland.ac.nz/document/Volume_81_1972/Volume_81%2C_No._2/Wa%2C_vinta%2C_and_trimaran%2C_by_Edwin_Doran_Jnr.%2C_p_144-159/p1

16. The Prahu: Traditional Sailing Boat of Indonesia  by Adrian Horridge, (1985).  Hamilton Library, University of Hawaii, [Asia VM371.H67].

17. University of Hawaii, Philippines Subject Guide

http://guides.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/content.php?pid=114108&sid=3899842

18. Kadagatan: A Curriculum on Filipino Culture and Marine Ecology http://manoa.hawaii.edu/cseas/teaching/?page_id=94

19. Bold Dream, Uncommon Valor, The Florentino Das Story by Serafin P. Colmenares, Jr. Cecilia D. Noble and Patricia E. Halagao.

20. “Processes of Decolonization” by Poka Laenui.  http://www.sjsu.edu/people/marcos.pizarro/maestros/Laenui.pdf

21. “Liberating Filipino Americans through decolonizing curriculum” by Patricia Halagao in Race, Ethnicity and Education vol. 13, no. 4 (2010): 495-512.

22. Worldwide Voyage 2012 – 2017, http://hokulea.com/world-wide-voyage/

23. Voyage of the Balangay, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D__zxh7j2mU

24.  AutoCAD Software, http://download.cnet.com/AutoCAD/3000-6677_4-10573933.html

25. Materials to build the prototype of the indigenous canoe.